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Financial Information Library

Wealth is the true measure of your financial standing. Wealth is simply a sum obtained by subtracting your total debts from all your earning (physical and intangible assets); be it of an entity or an individual. In other word, it is also called as net worth. The more positive the net worth is, the wealthier you are.

Wealth management is a process that involves financial planning, investment planning, portfolio management, Tax planning and other related financial services. Wealth management is a professional service that is offered by wealth managers or financial advisors; who are well versed and by qualification top notch MBA’s, Certified Financial Planners as well as financial professional’s with an in depth experience or speciality and relevant experience in handling the same.


A mutual fund is a collective pool of investment, pooled from many investors invested in the capital market. The earnings from investment are distributed among all the investors. The investment could be made in many financial instruments in the market like equities, debentures, NSC’s, etc. Specialists who take care of these transactions are known as fund managers.

Mutual fund’s is an option for people who cannot directly invest in to the equity market. Mutual fund’s are a safe mode of investing in equity market especially when one has limited knowledge about the equity market or even the paucity of time to master the same.




  • OPEN ENDED FUNDS: These mutual funds are available on a continous basis. It also means that one can enter and exit the mutual fund at any given point of time.
  • CLOSE ENDED FUNDS: These mutual funds are for a specified period of time only. The investors can buy these schemes when they are open for a fixed period of time.
  • Equity Funds
    • Large Cap Funds
    • Mid Cap Funds
    • Equity Linked Saving Schemes
    • Sector Funds
    • Index funds
  • Debt Funds
    • Liquid Funds
    • Gilt Funds
    • Income Funds
    • Fixed Maturity Plans
    • Floating Rate Funds
    • Monthly Income Plans
  • Balanced Funds
    • Debt-Oriented Funds
    • Equity-Oriented Funds


In this category, money is invested into equity funds or any equity related instruments. This type of an investment – although it carries high risks it does provide good returns. Further equity funds are classified into 4 types:

  • Large Cap Funds: These are open ended funds which are invested in large capital funds i.e. organizations which have large capital base, making them possibly safer and less risky investment options to our customers.
  • Mid Cap funds: These funds are open ended funds that are normally invested into mid-sized companies i.e. size of their capitalization is less than large companies. They offer growth as funds that are invested into developing companies. They may be less risky compared to small capital companies but yet considered fairly volatile.
  • Equity Linked Savings Schemes: These are open ended schemes which offer benefit of tax exemption under section 80c. They have a 3 year lock in period. These funds offer the double benefit of tax saving and capital appreciation, but offer marginal returns as well.
  • Sector Funds: These funds are invested in specific sectors like banking, metal, healthcare, retail, etc. However,this is usually in large capital or mid capital companies. These funds could be beneficial if a particular sector is in a boom period or buoyant and doing well.
  • Index funds: These funds are invested in a particular index only. For instance Sensex, Nifty, etc. These funds are easier and cheaper to manage.


This category of funds is invested in debt or debt related instruments. This investment is suitable for people who do not want to take any risk in investment. The results are however high.

  • Liquid funds: These are funds which invest in liquid asset class in commercial deposit, commercial papers, etc. These liquid assets are as good as hard cash. The returns on investments are not fixed in this type of investment.
  • Gilt funds: These funds are invested into government based securities. Unlike other debt funds these funds are invested only in debt instruments of the government sector. These securities are issued by RBI on behalf of the government. Investors here have an option from choosing between short and long term gilt funds.
  • Income Funds: These funds are invested into debt instruments which generate income for investors. These funds are normally invested in fixed income securities like fixed income securities like bonds, debentures, government securities, etc.
  • Fixed Maturity Plans: These are close ended funds which have a fixed maturity date i.e. the same date as the stated maturity of the plan. Investment in such plans is less risky and offer tax advantages. The objective of these plans is to generate stable income for you as an investor.
  • Floating rate funds: These funds are invested into capital markets with an objective of regular income flow to its investors along with opportunities for capital appreciation through investments in floating rate debt securities, derivative instruments, money market instruments, etc.
  • Monthly income plans: These funds are invested in equities and debt market both to generate income on a monthly basis to investors. These types of funds are suitable for investors who want to have better returns than pure debt based funds. These plans are also available with monthly, yearly, quarterly and half yearly options as well.


This category of funds is invested in both equity and debt instruments in equal proportion. These investments are suitable for people who aim at growth, income and capital appreciation. These funds are further classified as debt oriented funds and equity oriented funds.

  • Debt oriented funds: In this fund, the investment in equity and debts is in a proportion of 7:13 i.e. 65% in the debt instrument and 35% in equity. These are suitable for investors who would like to take lesser amounts of risk.
  • Equity-oriented funds: In this fund, the investment in equity and debts is in a proportion of 13:7 i.e. 65% in the equities and 35% in debt. These are suitable for investors who again would like to take moderate amounts of risk.

1. PROFESSIONALLY MANAGED: Mutual funds are managed by investment professionals. Our Fund Managers are skilled and experienced in mutual fund transactions as they have access to real market information and are able to make trades on very large and therefore cost effective securities packages.

2. DIVERSIFICATION: Mutual funds can help an investor diversify their portfolio in the case of limited funds. Investing in different securities can reduce and further mitigate the risk of losses. Further diversification is also obtained by investing in different sectors or categories when a particular sector or category is on a boom period. This helps in cutting risk associated with a particular sector as well.

3. CONVENIENCE: For a common man who cannot directly invest in the capital market, mutual funds are the best way to invest one’s money. It offers a safe return on investment while minimizing risks.

4. MINIMUM INITIAL INVESTMENT: Most Investments have a minimum initial purchase of Rs1000 or even less offered by different mutual funds. Investors can buy funds even on a monthly, quarterly, half yearly basis or even annually based on their convenience.

1. FINANCIAL RISKS: Mutual funds are subject to market risks. Mutual funds could result in losses and therefore there is no insurance against losses for an investor. In spite of risk reducing techniques that can be applied by fund managers, losses can occur. There is even a possibility to lose your entire investment.

2. UNCERTAINITY: Investing in wrong mutual funds can lead to fewer returns or even no returns based on circumstances and market conditions. Returns in such cases are uncertain. Therefore carefully choosing a mutual fund company and Mutual fund plan needs expert advice. It is best advised to stick to financial advisers in case of large investments.

3. COSTS: Mutual Funds always come with a cost. Apart from Investment, fees of financial advisers or fees of fund managers is also an investment. Regardless of the result (profit/loss), investors have to pay a fees. However, it is not true in every case. Some financial advisers always aim generating best results and returns for an investor. Fund managers try their best to keep investors in profit.

4. MARKET FLUCTUATIONS: Market’s are always fluctuating and therefore can rise and fall at any given point of time. An investor should be prepared to take risks in such situations and make the right investment decisions. In certain situations , even the best fund manager may fail to generate income or return from investment as originally anticipated.

Insurance is compensation against a future loss. However payment for the same has to be made on an agreed timely manner; be it monthly, quarterly, half yearly or even annually. Insurance is basically aimed at protecting the financial well-being of an individual, company or any other entity. The agreed terms for insurance is called Insurance policy and payment made for the same is called premium. Insurance are of many types ; Health Insurance, Fire Insurance , Vehicle Insurance , Life Insurance and so on.

UTMOST GOOD FAITH:According to this principle, the insurance contract must be signed by both parties in absolute good faith and trust. Both parties should give true information and disclose all true facts and figures. All information exchanged should be true. Any of the parties should not indulge in malpractice of any kind.

INDEMNITY: This principle is applicable to all types of Insurance. Under this principle, it is stated that the insurer must protect and compensate the insured against any damage , loss or injury. The insurer must help the insured in restoring his loss. However, the loss to be compensated should be measured in terms of money and compensation given only to the extent of the loss suffered. The maximum amount of compensation is subjected to amount of insurance only.

INSURABLE INTEREST: An individual, entity or any organisation planning to take a policy must have a clear objective of taking up insurance. The presence of insurable interest is the first and foremost anlegal requirement for any insurance. Without an insurable interest, insurance is considered legally invalid and no claims can be made at a later stage in any court of law. The objective of this principle is to avoid insurance to become a mode of gambling.

SUBROGATION: This principle states that when the insurer is compensated for any loss arising out of a property, the ownership of such asset will be transferred to the insurer/insurance company. This principle is applicable to all other insurance apart from life insurance. This principle prevents the insured being indemnified or compensated from two sources.

CONTRIBUTION: When a property is insured with more than one company , the total sum of insurance should not exceed the total value of the property. This principle states that insurer cannot claim more than what loss he/she has suffered. The loss is compensated in proportion to the insurance taken by different companies but will not exceed the total amount of loss.

PROXIMITY CAUSE: This clause does not apply to life insurance. According to this clause, the closet or the nearest cause of the damage should be taken into consideration to decide the liability of the insurer. Such a clause stands good when loss is caused by a series of events.

LOSS MINIMIZATION: This principle states that an insurer must try to minimize his losses and save whatever is possible. This applies in case of Fire Insurance wherein the insured should try to save what is left in case of fire based accidents. This principle applies to insurance of property.



Health insurance is insurance that covers the cost of an individual’s medical and surgical expenses in the case of illness, accidents, etc. This insurance offers a cover on medical expenses, hospitalization charges, doctor’s fee, etc. related to such incidents. Healthcare insurance policy clauses may differ in different policies.

  • Below are few types of health Insurance.
  • Accidental death and dismemberment insurance
  • Dental insurance
  • Disability insurance (Total permanent disability insurance)
  • Income protection insurance
  • Long term care insurance
  • National health insurance
  • Payment protection insurance
  • Vision insurance


Life Insurance is an insurance in which the insurer agrees to pay a sum of insured money to a beneficiary either after the insurer’s death or in case of any terminal illness. This insurance is made with an objective to benefit the family member’s or loved once of insurer, so as to avoid them from going through financial hardship of any kind due to death of the insured. Below are few life insurance policies.

  • Permanent life insurance
  • Term life insurance
  • Variable life insurance
  • Whole life insurance


Business insurance is a cover against losses arising out of business operations or transactions. Such insurance cover’s losses arising out of a key person leaving the company, property losses, credit risks, etc.

  • Below are few insurance plans under this category:Bond insurance
  • Directors and officers liability insurance
  • Fidelity bond
  • Professional liability insurance
  • Protection and indemnity insurance
  • Trade credit insurance
  • Umbrella insurance


Residential Insurance cover’s losses against any event affecting a residential property like natural calamity, fire, accidents, etc. Below are the policies available under residential insurance:

  • Contents insurance
  • Earthquake insurance
  • Flood insurance
  • Home insurance
  • Lenders mortgage insurance
  • Mortgage insurance
  • Property insurance
  • Title insurance


Transport insurance is insurance that covers losses arising out of transport of cargo through rail, road, air or sea. It could also mean insuring the means of transport itself such as aircraft, trucks, Trains or even ships and so on. Below are insurance types under Transport insurance.

  • Aviation insurance
  • Public auto insurance
  • Marine insurance
  • Vehicle insurance

Communication Insurance are insurance that cover losses arising out of damage to a communication device through accidents, natural calamities, in build problems , etc. The common type of insurance under this category :

  • Computer/laptop insurance
  • Phone insurance
  • Insurance for other communication devices.


Educational insurance is an insurance that covers educational expenses of a child’s education. It cover’s schooling , college fees , etc. This Insurance is gaining popularity in India due to rising prices of education.

  • Below are other types of insurance
  • Reinsurance
  • Crime insurance
  • Crop insurance
  • Group insurance
  • Liability insurance
  • Terrorism insurance
  • Wage insurance
  • Workers' compensation


Tax planning is about making strategic decisions that can minimize a variety of taxes. Federal income taxes, state income taxes, social security tax, self-employment tax, personal property tax, real estate tax, and a variety of sales and use taxes are all considered in overall tax planning.

Tax is a compulsory contribution to state revenue, levied by government on income earning individuals, businesses, sales, services, transactions, etc. Non Payment of tax is a punishable offence In India.

Timely payment of tax will benefit the common man as these monies are utilised for welfare of general public in more than one way by government. Tax calculation differs according to the income earned by an individual or income earned by a business, amount of sales, etc.

Planning is the key to successfully and legally reducing your tax liability. We go beyond tax compliance and proactively recommend tax saving strategies to maximize your after-tax income.

We make it a priority to enhance our mastery of the current tax law, complex tax code, and new tax regulations by attending frequent tax seminars.Businesses and individuals pay the lowest amount of taxes allowable by law because we continually look for ways to minimize your taxes throughout the year, not just at the end of the year.

Client feedback indicates our tax planning service is one of the most valued service provided and is educational. Think of the relief. Knowing your tax situation 5 or 6 months ahead of the April 15th deadline is invaluable.Remember, we work for you not for the IRS.

Many of our clients save many times the fee in reduced tax liability through careful planning and legitimate tax strategies.

Tax Planning is a process of financial planning of an individual’s income or assets and minimizing tax liability. Tax planning starts by analysis of an individual’s financial situation i.e. the calculation of the total income of an individual for a particular year/term. This enables an individual to calculate the final tax amount and also discover the possibility of reducing theoverall tax liability through different rebates that are currently available on taxation; as well as help in being tax efficient.


India Income tax slabs 2012-2013 for General tax payers

Income tax slab (in Rs.) Tax
0 to 2,00,000 No Tax
2,00,001 to 5,00,000 10%
5,00,001 to 10,00,000 20%
Above 10,00,000 30%

India Income tax slabs 2012-2013 for Female tax payers

Income tax slab (in Rs.) Tax
0 to 2,00,000 No Tax
2,00,001 to 5,00,000 10%
5,00,001 to 10,00,000 20%
Above 10,00,000 30%

India Income tax slabs 2012-2013 for Senior citizens (Aged 60 years but less than 80 years)

Income tax slab (in Rs.) Tax
0 to 2,50,000 No Tax
2,50,001 to 5,00,000 10%
5,00,001 to 10,00,000 20%
Above 10,00,000 30%

India Income tax slabs 2012-2013 for very senior citizens (Aged 80 and above)

Income tax slab (in Rs.) Tax
0 to 5,00,000 No Tax
5,00,001 to 10,00,000 20%
Above 10,00,000 30%


An ELSS (Equity linked savings Scheme) is a diversified equity fund subject to change in income tax regulation. They have 3 year lock in period. ELSS offers tax deductions under section 80C for investments up to 100000(subjected to change in tax regulation).

There are two types of ELSS plans, growth option and dividend option:
1. GROWTH PLAN: Under the growth plan the investor does not get regular income. However, the investor gets the income after the term of the ELSS is over or if it is pre maturely cancelled. The advantage of this plan is that the investor receives a lump sum amount at the end of the term. The only disadvantage is that there is no regular income flow.
2. DIVIDEND PLAN: This is the opposite of the growth plan. In this plan the investor receives a regular income through the duration /term of the investment. However, it is uncertain that amount is stable. It could be erratic. The disadvantage of this plan is that at the end of the term , the total income earned is not lump sum.

Provides a regular income to investors
Provides tax exemptions under sector 80c.
The lock in period is comparitively short than other instruments like NSC or PPF.
Earning potential is higher as it is equity linked scheme
Investors can also opt for systematic Investment option(SIP) and invest in small amounts as well
Under Growth plan option , an investor can earn more returns on investment.

Pre mature withdrawl of funds are not allowed except in some cases.
Risks factor is high as ELSS is related to equity market.

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